My most up-to-date list of publications can be found on my Google Scholar page. For those that care about such things (which, I’ll admit, includes me as I like to quantify my value), my work has been cited >1500 times and my h-index is 20 as of February 2023. Please e-mail me if you need access to any specific paper.

Journal Articles

  • C. A. R. Perini, A.-F. Castro-Mendez, T. Kodalle, M. Ravello, J. Hidalgo, M. Gomez-Dominguez, R. Li, M. Taddei, R. Giridharagopal, J. Pothoof, C. M. Sutter-Fella, D. S. Ginger, J.-P. Correa-Baena. “Vapor-Deposited n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper Interface Layers Aid Charge Carrier Extraction in Perovskite Solar Cells.” ACS Energy Letters 8, 1408–1415 (2023).
  • J. Guo, L. Q. Flagg, D. K. Tran, S. E. Chen, R. Li, N. B. Kolhe, R. Giridharagopal, S. A. Jenekhe, L. J. Richter, D. S. Ginger. “Hydration of a Side-Chain-Free n-Type Semiconducting Ladder Polymer Driven by Electrochemical Doping.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 145, 1866-1876 (2023).
  • Y. Shi, E. Rojas-Gatjens, J. Wang, J. Pothoof, R. Giridharagopal, K. Ho, F. Jiang, M. Taddei, Z. Yang, E. M. Sanehira, M. D. Irwin, C. Silva-Acuña, D. S. Ginger. “(3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane Surface Passivation Improves Perovskite Solar Cell Performance by Reducing Surface Recombination Velocity.” ACS Energy Letters 7, 4081–4088 (2022).
  • Y. Gong, Q. Zhu, B. Li, S. Wang, B. Duan, L. Lou, C. Xiang, E. Jedlicka, R. Giridharagopal, Y. Zhou, Q. Dai, W. Yan, S. Chen, Q. Meng, H. Xin. “Elemental de-mixing-induced epitaxial kesterite/CdS interface enabling 13%-efficiency kesterite solar cells.” Nature Energy 7, 966-977. (2022).
  • S. Sidhik, Y. Wang, M. De Siena, R. Asadpour, A. J. Torma, T. Terlier, K. Ho, W. Li, A. B. Puthirath, X. Shuai, A. Agrawal, B. Traore, M. Jones, R. Giridharagopal, P. M. Ajayan, J. Strzalka, D. S. Ginger, C. Katan, M. A. Alam, J. Even, M. G. Kanatzidis, A. D. Mohite. “Deterministic fabrication of 3D/2D perovskite bilayer stacks for durable and efficient solar cells.” Science. 377, 1425–1430 (2022).
  • M. D. Breshears, R. Giridharagopal, J. Pothoof, D. S. Ginger. “A Robust Neural Network for Extracting Dynamics from Electrostatic Force Microscopy Data.” Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 62, 4342-4350 (2022).
  • D. E. Shea, R. Giridharagopal, D. S. Ginger, S. L. Brunton, J. N. Kutz. “Extraction of instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes in nonstationary time-series data.” IEEE Access 9, 83453 (2021).
  • R. Giridharagopal, J. Guo, J. Kong, D. S. Ginger. “Nanowire Architectures Improve Ion Uptake Kinetics in Conjugated Polymer Electrochemical Transistors.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 13, 34616 (2021).
  • J. Yu, R. Giridharagopal, Y. Li, K. Xie, J. Li, T. Cao, X. Xu, D. S. Ginger. “Imaging Graphene Moiré Superlattices via Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.” Nano Letters 21, 3280-3286 (2021)
  • E. Jedlicka, J. Wang, J. Mutch, Y.-K. Jung, P. Went, J. Mohammed, M. Ziffer, R. Giridharagopal, A. Walsh, J.-H. Chu, and D. S. Ginger. “Bismuth Doping Alters Structural Phase Transitions in Methylammonium Lead Tribromide Single Crystals.” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 12, 2749 (2021).
  • Y. Gong, R. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Fu, E. Jedlicka, R. Giridharagopal, Q. Zhu, Y. Zhou, W. Yan, S. Yu, J. Jiang, S. Wu, D. S. Ginger, W. Huang, and H. Xin. “Ag Incorporation with Controlled Grain Growth Enables 12.5% Efficient Kesterite Solar Cell with Open Circuit Voltage Reached 64.2% Shockley–Queisser Limit.” Advanced Functional Materials 2101927 (2021).
  • Y. Gong, Y. Zhang, E. Jedlicka, R. Giridharagopal, J. A. Clark, W. Yan, C. Niu, R. Qiu, J. Jiang, S. Yu, S. Wu, H. W. Hillhouse, D. S. Ginger, W. Huang, and H. Xin. “Sn4+ Precursor Enables 12.4% Efficient Kesterite Solar Cell from DMSO Solution with Open Circuit Voltage Deficit below 0.30 V.” Science China Materials 64, 52 (2021).
  • F. Jiang, J. Pothoof, F. Muckel, R. Giridharagopal, J. Wang, and D. S. Ginger. “Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy Reveals That Ion Motion Varies with Dimensionality in 2D Halide Perovskites.” ACS Energy Letters 6, 100 (2021).
  • J. Jiang, R. Giridharagopal, E. Jedlicka, K. Sun, S. Yu, S. Wu, Y. Gong, W. Yan, D. S. Ginger, M. A. Green, X. Hao, W. Huang, and H. Xin. “Highly Efficient Copper-Rich Chalcopyrite Solar Cells from DMF Molecular Solution.” Nano Energy 69, 104438 (2020).
  • R. Giridharagopal, J. T. Precht, S. Jariwala, L. Collins, S. Jesse, S. V. Kalinin, D. S. Ginger. “Time-Resolved Electrical Scanning Probe Microscopy of Layered Perovskites Reveals Spatial Variations in Photoinduced Ionic and Electronic Carrier Motion.” ACS Nano 13, 2812-2821 (2019)
  • J. S. Harrison, D. A. Waldow, P. A. Cox, R. Giridharagopal, M. Adams, V. Richmond, S. Modahl, M. Longstaff, R. Zhuravlev, D. S. Ginger. “Noncontact Imaging of Ion Dynamics in Polymer Electrolytes with Time-Resolved Electrostatic Force Microscopy.” ACS Nano 13, 536-543 (2018).
  • A. Fakharuddin, M. Seybold, A. Agresti, S Pescetelli, F. Matteocci, M. I. Haider, S. T. Birkhold, H. Hu, R. Giridharagopal, M Sultan, I. M. Sero, A. Di Carlo, L. Schmidt-Mende. “Perovskite-Polymer Blends Influencing Microstructure, Non-Radiative Recombination Pathways and Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, 42542-42551 (2018)
  • L. Q. Flagg, R. Giridharagopal, J. Guo, D. S. Ginger. “Anion-Dependent Doping and Charge Transport in Organic Electrochemical Transistors.” Chemistry of Materials 30, 5380-5389 (2018).
  • J. Kong, R. Giridharagopal, J. S. Harrison, D. S. Ginger. “Identifying Nanoscale Structure-Function Relationships Using Multimodal Atomic Force Microscopy, Dimensionality Reduction, and Regression Techniques.” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, 3307-3314 (2018).
  • S. T. Birkhold, J. T. Precht, R. Giridharagopal, G. E. Eperon, L. Schmidt-Mende, D. S. Ginger. “Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 122, 12633-12639 (2018).
  • S. T. Birkhold, J. T. Precht, H. Liu, R. Giridharagopal, G. E. Eperon, L. Schmidt-Mende, X. Li, D. S. Ginger. “Interplay of Mobile Ions and Injected Carriers Creates Recombination Centers in Metal Halide Perovskites Under Bias.” ACS Energy Letters 3, 1279-1286 (2018).
  • S. M. Vorpahl, R. Giridharagopal, G. E. Eperon, I. M. Hermes, S. A. L. Weber, D. S. Ginger. “Orientation of Ferroelectric Domains and Disappearance upon Heating Methylammonium Lead Triiodide Perovskite from Tetragonal to Cubic Phase.” ACS Applied Energy Materials 1, 1534-1539 (2018).
  • R. Giridharagopal, L. Q. Flagg, J. S. Harrison, M. E. Ziffer, J. Onorato, C. K. Luscombe, D. S. Ginger. “Morphology-Induced Variations in Ion Uptake and Performance in Organic Electrochemical Transistors Probed with Electrochemical Strain Microscopy.” Nature Materials 16, 767 (2017).
  • P. A. Cox, L. Q. Flagg, R. Giridharagopal, D. S. Ginger. “Cantilever Ringdown Dissipation Imaging for the Study of Loss Processes in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, 12369 (2016).
  • D. U. Karatay, J. S. Harrison, M. S. Glaz, R. Giridharagopal, D. S. Ginger. “Fast Time-Resolved Electrostatic Force Microscopy: Achieving Sub-Cycle Time Resolution.” Review of Scientific Instruments 87, 053702 (2016).
  • G. Gramse, E. Brinciotti, A. Lucibello, S. B. Patil, M. Kasper, C. Rankl, R. Giridharagopal, P. Hinterdorfer, R. Marcelli, F. Kienberger. “Quantitative Sub-Surface and Non-Contact Imaging Using Scanning Microwave Microscopy.” Nanotechnology 26, 135701 (2015).
  • Max. Pech-Canul, R. Giridharagopal, Mar. Pech-Canul, E. Coral-Escobar. “Corrosion Characteristics of an Al-1.78%Si-13.29%Mg Alloy in Chloride Solutions.” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 22, 3922-3932 (2013)
  • R. Giridharagopal, G. E. Rayermann, G. Shao, D. T. Moore, O. G. Reid, A. F. Tillack, D.J. Masiello, and D. S. Ginger. “Sub-Microsecond Time Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Dynamics.” Nano Letters 12, 893-898 (2012)
  • R. Giridharagopal, J. Zhang, and K. F. Kelly. “Antenna-Based Ultrahigh Vacuum Microwave Frequency Alternating Current Scanning Tunneling Microscopy System.” Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 053710 (2011) [cover article]
  • A. H. Rice, R. Giridharagopal, S. X. Zheng, F. S. Ohuchi, D. S. Ginger, C. K. Luscombe. “Controlling Vertical Morphology Within the Active Layer of Organic Photovoltaics Using Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Nanowires and Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester.” ACS Nano 5, 3132-3140 (2011) 
  • J. H. Worne, R. Giridharagopal, K. F. Kelly, and D. Natelson. “Interfacial Charge Transfer in Nanoscale Polymer Transistors.” Nano Research 1, 341-350 (2008)
  • R. Giridharagopal and K. F. Kelly. “Substrate-Dependent Properties of Polydiacetylene Nanowires on Graphite and MoS2.” ACS Nano 2, 1571-1580 (2008)       
  • R. Giridharagopal and K. F. Kelly. “STM-Induced Desorption of Polydiacetylene Nanowires and Reordering Via Molecular Cascades.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111, 6161-6166 (2007)
  • P. Landon, J. Gutierrez, J. Ferraris, I. Martinez, R. Giridharagopal, et al. “Inverse Gold Photonic Crystals and Conjugated Polymer Coated Opals for Functional Materials.” Physica B: Condensed Matter 338, 165-170 (2003)


  • R. Giridharagopal, P. A. Cox, D. S. Ginger. “Functional Scanning Probe Imaging of Nanostructured Solar Energy Materials.” Accounts of Chemical Research 49, 1769 (2016).
  • R. Giridharagopal, G. Shao, C. Groves, and D. S. Ginger. “New SPM Techniques for Analyzing OPV Materials.” Materials Today 19, 50-56 (2010).
  • R. Giridharagopal and D. S. Ginger. “Characterizing Morphology in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Systems.” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1, 1160-1169 (2010).

Conference Proceedings

  • R. Giridharagopal, D. S. Ginger. “Measuring Dynamics in Energy Materials Using Functional Atomic Force Microscopy” Microscopy and Microanalysis 28 (S1), 904-905 (2022).
  • L. Collins, J. Killgore, S. Berweger, R. Cohn, N. D. Marimon, G. Fantner, R. Giridharagopal, S. V. Kalinin, P. Leclere, K. Nakajima, B. Pittenger, A. L. B. Pyne, S. Scheuring, R. K. Vasudevan, D. Yablon. “Perspectives in Scanning Probe Microscopy from the 2021 Joint International Scanning Probe Microscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy on Soft and Polymeric Materials Conference.” Microscopy and Analysis 57 (2022).
  • R. Giridharagopal, T. M. Eiles, B. Niu. “Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy for Through-Silicon Imaging and Fault Isolation of Integrated Circuits.” In 40th International Symposium on Test and Failure Analysis, Houston, p. 299-303 (2014)
  • R. Giridharagopal and K. F. Kelly. “Atomic-Scale Analysis of Polydiacetylene Nanowires by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy”, In 7th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology, Hong Kong, p. 1002-1006 (2007)

Book Chapters

  • R. Giridharagopal, G. E. Rayermann, D. S. Ginger. “Electrical Scanning Probe Microscopy on Solar Cell Materials.” In Scanning Probe Microscopy for Energy Research. D. A. Bonnell, S. V. Kalinin, eds. World Scientific, NJ, p. 39-71 (2013).


  • VisibleLaser Probing for Circuit Debug and Defect Analysis.” T. M. Eiles, R. Giridharagopal, D. N. Shykind. Patent 9,651,610
  • Sub-Microsecond-Resolution Time-Domain Time-Resolved Electrostatic Force Microscopy.” D. S. Ginger, R. Giridharagopal, D. T. Moore, O. G. Reid, G. E. Rayermann. Patent Number 8,686,358